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中国当代艺术需要建构自身的当代性
作者: 王文章 上传时间: 2010/9/24 来源: “建构之维”中国当代艺术邀请展 浏览 3233 次 评论 0 条
  在过去的 30多年的改革开放中,我国在政治、经济、文化等方面的现代化进程都取得了举世瞩目的成就。伴随着中国改革开放及全球化的历史进程,中国当代艺术应运而生。就当下的发展而言,中国当代艺术已形成自身的特点:

  正因为当代艺术是在我国社会走向现代化进程中产生和兴起的一种艺术样式,所以它有着鲜明的当代性。当代艺术反映了中国社会加速现代化、社会转型和社会矛盾变化,以及人们审美情趣趋向多元化的现实。不能否认,中国当代艺术的“前卫”和“当代性”,在一个时期内和一定程度上,是以西方艺术的价值取向为衡量标准的。也应该看到,目前,中国当代艺术已开始注意体现表达中国艺术审美价值观和中国文化个性的当代性。“主体性的表达”已成为不少艺术家有意识的追求。他们努力使自己的作品能成为过去三十年来社会、政治、文化发展的表征,希冀从一个侧面凸显特定时期的时代特征、社会思潮、价值观念、文化取向和审美追求。
 
  开始形成积极的、健康的当代艺术多元化发展格局。中国当代艺术曾经过分关切自身所表达的文化身份和政治意义,这在一定程度上是受到西方对它的“非艺术性”的意识形态解读的影响。由此,削弱甚至丧失了自身在内容与形式上的前卫性与创造意义,成为符号化和简单化的标本。本土文化精神和当代主流文化发展的影响以及中国国际地位和国家形象的提升,促使不少艺术家以一种建立在文化自省基础上的文化自觉,去努力创造具有当代中国品格的优秀作品。他们以独具的艺术个性,以观念和形式的新颖及表现的深刻性令人耳目一新。他们在汲取中华民族传统文化的基础上,立足于本土的社会、文化现实,尤其是在当下全球化的语境中,以独特性的艺术表达,创作出具有广泛影响力的作品,开始建立有别于西方现当代美术史的艺术发展谱系。
 
  已逐步形成一支以自己有代表性的有影响力的作品为标志的艺术家队伍。他们有的在艺术院校,有的在艺术创作、研究机构,还有的作为体制外的自由职业艺术家,这些都不妨碍他们艺术语言创新、艺术形式实验、艺术观念探索的前卫和独创性地表达。其中不少有眼光的艺术家,以自己的创作或同时以理论的方式,对于当代艺术表现中流于简单的政治讽刺和玩世不恭、缺乏应有的人文深度和自我批判性,欠缺对中国传统和当代文化精神的深度把握、艺术表现的肤浅和表面化,特别是歪曲性地反讽政治、丑化中国形象等做出疏离和批判。他们反映当代中国形象和揭示时代精神、表达多元审美趋向的具有艺术冲击力的作品,成为我们这个时代艺术创新的标志之一。
 
  中国当代艺术的价值取向不是单一的,而是多元的,它既表现在人文价值的追求中,也体现于艺术本体的建构中。不过,它的核心价值同时源于艺术家如何在文化、美学领域彰显其承载的当代性。我们知道,从20世纪 70年代末、80年代初期开始,文化成为思想解放运动的先锋,为改革开放和社会主义现代化建设事业的发展发挥了不可替代的作用。当时,在政治思想“拨乱反正”的背景下,人文学术领域兴起了“美学热”“方法论热”,大量长期隔绝的域外思想(特别是当代西方的哲学、美学、文艺思想)被译介、引进过来,同时,中国传统文化观念和“五四”以来的现代文化观念重新得到发掘和认识;在文学艺术领域,具有社会思潮性质的创作活动相继出现,如“伤痕文艺”、“反思文艺”、“寻根文艺”、“先锋文艺”等等,中国现代文艺的多样性传统逐渐受到尊重,欧美现代文艺的风格、样式、表现手法被大量借用,在理论上,围绕 “人性论”和“人道主义”、“现实主义”与“现代主义”、“关注现实”与“自我表现”等争论也产生了广泛的社会影响。这些构成了20世纪80年代的精神氛围,也成为了中国当代艺术发展早期的文化语境。尽管整个80年代的文学艺术存在许多问题和矛盾,其中有的在今天仍然没有很好地解决,但是,它代表了一个民族在经历政治磨难之后对自己和世界的重新认知。在这个过程中,文学艺术家紧跟改革开放的步伐,自觉成为社会变革的见证者和时代精神的表达者。
 
  20世纪90年代以来,随着社会主义市场经济的进一步发展,我国社会发生了进一步深刻的变化,在艺术领域,中国艺术的当代创新成为摆在广大艺术家面前的一道重要课题:如何在全球化的语境中体现艺术的当代性,即如何在本土与国际、民族与世界、东方与西方的情境中发展中国的艺术,确立自身的文化身份;如何面对商业文化的冲击而保持文化艺术的独立品格?这里涉及到如何重新评价、思考文化艺术具有的地位、价值、意义、功能等问题;文化艺术应该与现实社会保持什么样的关系,如何建立适合艺术发展的社会机制,以及如何从艺术的传播、欣赏、收藏等角度思考艺术发展战略,等等。在现代化和社会主义市场经济体制下,必然呈现艺术的多元化。社会转型期文艺当代性的追求,因为社会经济环境、人们审美趋向的多元需求和艺术家秉持艺术观念与各自艺术背景差异的诸多综合因素,催生了创作题材、体裁、样式、风格、流派如雨后春笋,竞相展示的百花齐放的璀璨景观。当代中国各种风格流派的艺术探索都在艺术的当代性探索中以赫然的艺术成就作出了自己的贡献。中国当代艺术,作为一个与中国20世纪80年代以来新潮美术相连的流派或风格概念,它逐渐集合起的一批艺术家,也作为当代中国艺术在当代性探索中的一个劲旅,在当下的艺术创作中占有了它的地位。尽管如前所述,不可否认它受西方艺术影响而成长的背景,但它的本土根源内在于我国30年来改革开放的社会现实当中,其精神诉求,则始终指向艺术当代性探索的追求。
 
  艺术当代性的追求,永远是艺术与历史相生相伴的灵魂。但中国当代艺术,并不因为它标示“当代”而具有天然的当代性,比如那种丑陋怪异、趣味庸俗及解构政治和中国形象,伤害民族自尊的图式化符号表现,以及血腥、暴力的渲染,都只是一种主观概念的肤浅演绎,不仅与当代性没有关联,而且也与个性表达和艺术创新的实验性探求无缘。尽管当代艺术的构成材料和呈现方式多样化,但其仍然需要品格和源于其本体表现的内涵的深刻性。中国当代艺术的追求,应当紧紧把握中国当代社会发展进程的脉搏,关心当代人的生存状态和精神诉求;紧紧把握文化艺术自身的发展趋向和人们审美趣味的发展变化,以独创性的表达和独特的艺术语言形式以及深刻的思想、观念揭示,顺应时代和人民的要求,正确表达对时代前进的关注和对这个时代中人的命运的关切,用作品的丰厚蕴涵、直指心灵的震撼力量和艺术魅力赢得观众,不断以作品观念和形式的创新,为当代中国艺术的创新增添亮色。
 
  由此,中国当代艺术作为中国特色社会主义文化的一个组成部分,占有不可忽视的位置。在全球化趋势面前,中国当代社会和时代在发展变化,艺术的内涵和外延也在嬗变、衍生、发展之中,以什么样的文化身份,以什么样的艺术面貌,以什么样的文化价值立场,建立起自身面对世界的文化话语权,建立起立足于中国自身的艺术评价标准和体系,仍然是一个需要不断探索的过程。为此,中国艺术研究院于2009年11月13日成立了中国当代艺术院,并于今年与中国美术馆联合主办此次“建构之维—— 2010中国当代艺术邀请展”。相信由这一平台集合起的中国当代具有旺盛创造活力的艺术家群体,会以他们立足当代中国社会生活的个人独特体验为基础,以其勃发的生命力和自由自主的艺术创作和艺术探讨,以及理论研究和国际性的艺术交流,推动具有当代中国精神气象的当代艺术走上一个新境界。

                   王文章
         中华人民共和国文化部副部长,中国艺术研究院院长,博士生导师


Chinese Contemporary Art Needs to Build Its Own Contemporaneity

Wang Wenzhang
Vice Minister of Ministry of Culture, PRC,
President of Chinese National Academy of Arts, PhD Supervisor

  In the past thirty years of reform and opening up, China has made remarkable achievements in the course of the modernization in politics, economics, culture and other aspects. With the historical process of China’s reform and opening up as well as the globalization, Chinese contemporary art emerged at its proper moment. By now, the Chinese contemporary art has developed its own characteristics:
 
  As an art style occurred and sprang up in the process of modernization of our society, contemporary art has distinctive feature of contemporaneity. Contemporary art reflects the reality of the accelerated modernization of Chinese society, social transformation, changes in social conflicts, and tendency towards the diversification of people’s aesthetic interest. There is no denying that in a certain period, “avant-garde” and “contemporaneity” of Chinese contemporary art regards the value orientation of the western art as a measure to some extent. We should also see that at present, Chinese contemporary art has begun to pay attention to the representation of the contemporaneity that expresses the aesthetic values of Chinese art and the characters of Chinese Culture. “The expression of subjectivity” has become many artists’ conscious pursuit. They endeavor to make their works the token of the development of society, politics, and culture over the past three decades, hoping to highlight the characteristics of time, trends of social thought, values, cultural orientation, and aesthetic pursuit in a specific period from one aspect.
 
  A positive and healthy pluralistic pattern of development of contemporary art has come into existence. Partly due to the impact of the ideological interpretation of it as “non-artistic” by the west, Chinese contemporary art paid too much attention to the cultural identity and political significance expressed by itself. As a result, it impaired or even lost its own avant-garde quality and significance of creativity in content and form, and became a sample of symbolization and simplification. The spirit of local culture, the impact of the development of contemporary mainstream culture, and the rise of China’s international standing and national image, promoted many artists to endeavor to create excellent works with the quality of contemporary China, in a cultural consciousness based upon cultural introspection. They come up with distinctive characters of art, novelty in concept and form, and the depth of expression, which is refreshing. Based upon the understanding of traditional Chinese culture, and the local reality of society and culture, especially in the current context of globalization, with distinctive artistic expressions, they created widely influential works and are beginning to establish a pedigree of art development different form the history of modern and contemporary western art.
 
  A troop of artists marked by their own representative influential works has gradually come into existence. Some of them are at art schools, some are at artistic institutions of creation and research, still others are outside the system as freelance professional artists, yet, all of these do not impede their expressions of innovation in artistic language, experiment in art forms, and avant-garde as well as creative expression in exploration of artistic ideas. Many insightful artists among them keep away from and criticize the simplified political satire and cynicism, the lack of humanistic depth and self-criticism, the deficiency of profound grasp of Chinese tradition and contemporary culture spirit, the shallowness and superficiality of artistic expression, especially the political irony and the vilification of national image of China in contemporary artistic expression with their own creation or in a theoretical way at the same time. Their works with artistic impact that reflect national image of contemporary China, reveal the spirit of the times, and express the diversified aesthetic tendency, has become one of the signs of artistic innovation of our times.

  The value orientation of contemporary Chinese art is not a single one, but a diversified one, which is not only expressed in the pursuit of humanistic values, but also reflected in the construction of the ontology of art. However, its core value also stems from how artists demonstrate the contemporaneity being carried in the fields of culture and aesthetics. We know that, from late 1970s and early 1980s, culture became the pioneer of the ideological emancipation movement, played an irreplaceable role in reform and opening up, and development of socialist modernization. At that time, against the background of Setting Things Right in political thoughts, “aesthetics fever” and “methodology fever” sprang up in the field of humanistic academic field, a large number of foreign thoughts that had been isolated from for a long period (especially contemporary Western philosophy, aesthetics, and literary thoughts) were translated and introduced, at the same time, the concepts of traditional Chinese culture and the concepts of modern culture since May 4th Movement were rediscovered and reconsidered; in the fields of literature and art, creative activities in the nature of trend of social thought such as “Scar literature”, “Reflection literature”, “Root-seeking Literature”, and “Avant-garde Literature” emerged in succession, the diversified tradition of modern Chinese art was gradually respected, the forms, styles, and technique of expression of European and American modern art were borrowed by a large amount as for theory, arguments about the topics such as “the theory of human nature” and “humanism”, “realism” and “modernism” “concern about reality” and “self presentation” also produced an extensive social influence. All these constituted the spiritual atmosphere of the 1980s, and also became the early cultural context of the development of Chinese contemporary art. Although there were many problems and contradictions in art and literature throughout the 1980s, some of which are still not well resolved today, however, it represented a nation’s re-recognition of the world and itself after experienced political sufferings. In this process, writers and artists follow the pace of reform and opening up, and consciously become witnesses to social changes and the expressers of the spirit of the times.
 
   Since the 1990s, with the further development of socialist market economy, further profound changes have taken place in our society. In the field of art, contemporary innovation in Chinese art became an important subject before all artists: how to represent the contemporaneity of art in the context of globalization, that is how to develop Chinese art and establish our own cultural identity in the local and international, national and the world, East and West circumstances; how to maintain the independent character of culture and art under the impact of commercial culture? This involves how to re-evaluate and consider the issues such as status, value, meaning, and function of culture and art; what kind of relationship culture and art should maintain with the real world, how to establish a social mechanism suitable for the development of art, and how to think about the strategy of art development from the perspectives of communication, appreciation, collection and other aspects of art, and other questions. In the modernization and the socialist market economic system, there is bound to be the diversification of art. Because of the comprehensive factors such as socio-economic environment, people’s diversified requirements for aesthetic tendency, differences in artistic ideas and artistic backgrounds of the artists, the pursuit of artistic contemporaneity in the period of the transformation of social structure, promoted the emergence of a resplendent scenery in which themes, genres, forms, styles, and schools sprang up and contended for demonstration like a hundred flowers in bloom. Artistic explorations of various schools of Chinese contemporary art have made contributions to the exploration of artistic contemporaneity with remarkable artistic achievements. As a school or concept of style connected to the New Wave Art in China since 1980s, contemporary Chinese art has gradually assembled a group of artists, who play important roles in the exploration of contemporaneity in Chinese contemporary art, and established its own position in contemporary art creation. Although as mentioned previously, there is no denying that it has been influenced by the western art during its growth, however, its local roots lie in China's social reality of three decades of reform and opening up, and its spiritual appeal always points to the pursuit of exploration of artistic contemporaneity.
 
  The pursuit of artistic contemporaneity, is always the soul accompanying art and history. However, Chinese contemporary art, does not have a natural contemporaneity because it was labeled with “contemporary”, for example, the schematic and symbolized representations that are ugly, weird, and vulgar, deconstruct politics and China’s image, and impair the national pride, as well as the bloody violent exaggeration, are all superficial interpretations with subjective concepts,which are not related to contemporaneity, and moreover, has nothing to do with individual expression and experimental search for artistic innovation. Although there are different kinds of materials and ways of representation of contemporary art, it still needs character and depth of connotation from the expression of its ontology. The pursuit of contemporary Chinese art should hold fast to the pulse of contemporary social development, care for the existence situations and spiritual pursuit of the contemporary peoples; grasp firmly the development tendency of the culture and art and changes in people’s aesthetic interests, express concerns for the progress of the times and cares for the fate of the people in this era, with original expression and distinctive artistic form and profound thought and ideas, following the requirements of the times and the people, correctly express the attention to the advance of the time and the care for people’s fate in this age, conquer the hearts of his audience, with works of rich connotations and impressive power, make contributions to the innovation of contemporary Chinese art continuously with the innovation of concepts and forms of works.
 
  Hence, as a component of socialist culture with Chinese characteristics, contemporary Chinese art plays a role can not be neglected. Before the trend of globalization, Chinese contemporary society and times are under development and changes, connotation and denotation of art are also under evolution, derivation, and development, in what kind of cultural identity, with what kind of artistic form, on what kind of cultural value stance, to establish its own cultural right of discourse towards the world, and to establish the artistic evaluation criterion and system based upon China’s own background, is still a process in need of continuous exploration. Therefore, on November 13, 2009, Chinese National Academy of Arts established Contemporary Art Academy of China, and in this year it co-organized this “The Constructed Demension — 2010 Chinese Contemporary Art Invitational Exhibition” together with National Art Museum of China. I believe that based on their distinctive personal experiences of their social life in contemporary China, with their great vitality, free artistic creation and discussion, theoretical research and international artistic communications, this group of contemporary Chinese artists with exuberant creativity gathered by this platform, will push forward the contemporary art with contemporary Chinese spirit to a new level.
编辑:【冯知军】
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